What Meditation Has Taught Me About Artificial Consciousness & Intelligence - The Making of Cognitive Computing
Neural nets and multi-layer perceptrons are amazing. Sure they have their limitations, but advances in deep learning and big, fast GPUs for processing have given them new life. However large the networks get, artificial neural networks will remain as nothing but virtual calculating machines until they get some complexity in the form of abstraction, ideation, equating and association. All of these cognitive functions cannot happen without multi-dimensional memory. Before an artificial neural network can gain any consciousness at all, it needs a memory machine. A memory machine is not enough. To further complete the picture, one needs massive parallelism and a few other things outlined below.
I was just reading about Hibbean memory creation, where if you see a dog, and that dog bites you and you feel massive fear and pain, then you will develop neural nets of dog fear and dog aversion. The parallel discovery or learning experiences in the same time domain links the two neural networks and creates a memory that is triggering by the dog input.
This insight gives one huge insight into the eventual construction of a cognitive, conscious artificial intelligence. One must have a temporal time domain controller that creates links between separate, unrealated events that happen simultaneously or as a result of, immediately before or after another memory forming event. In artificial intelligence parlance, this means that when a link like this is created in the time domain, the back propagation or learning is not a mere 10% or 5% like in the AI machines of today. It is 100%, and those circuits are almost never altered again, unless we go through a rigorous unlearning process.
Crucial to the artificial neural network, is the need for straight non-neural net memory. However neural networks must link to this memory. In other words, we do not re-create a memory every time we need it. We can access it through neural net ideation. For example, we cannot if we cannot remember the name of a childhood neighbor, we can visualize images, recall our memories of his or her house, and eventually we will bootstrap a neural net connected to the memory address and we will think of the name.
This temporal controller that links time domain events is important, because we get context from a timeline. And our brains are timeline aware. We know that we didn't something before we gained knowledge of it. In fact, this is metadata knowledge about metadata of an event connected to a timeline.
Time awareness and how time fits into the context of knowledge gives us the ability to abstract. Like Yogi Berra's deja vue all over again, once we realize that we are in a recognized sequence, we can begin to abstract about that knowledge and figure out wheres and whys. The idea of abstraction is the true mark of intelligence. To get the necessary brain MIPS (millions of instructions per second) or flops for abstraction, we need an ideation tool. In other words, the main difference between the artificial intelligence of today and the true cognitive computing, is that the machine must keep on thinking even when it has no inputs to its layers of neurons. Ideation must be self generated.
And strangely enough, it is the practice of mediation that was the germ of an idea for machine ideation. In meditation, one tries to give the brain a rest by not thinking of anything. Usually one just keeps the thought process on breathing, or an inner visual cue, or by repeating a meaningless, non-cognitive load mantra. This is an incredibly difficult thing to do. The stream of consciousness keeps popping up random thoughts in your head, and people just starting the practice of meditation have a very difficult time with random thoughts. However the key is not to sweat them. You just observe them, and let them go without further investing in them.
I began to analyse the ideation that intruded on my mediation and it gave me some powerful insights that have application to artificial intelligence. The first was the time controller or time domain awareness. After sitting for awhile, my mind would begin to wonder how long I had sat. Then it would try to get me to open my eyes to sneak a peek at my watch. Once I let those thoughts go as an observer only, I would start to think that the meditation was quite pleasant, and it would take me off to a time and place where I had felt pleasant before. Here was self generated, internal idea generation. Again, the time domain played a bit factor, as well as memory. However it was the opposite of abstraction. A pleasant abstract feeling triggered a concrete memory. This is the knowledge integration cycle in reverse.
Again this is something that doesn't happen in artificial neural nets. They can abstract into higher context, but they don't usually go backwards. This is another necessary key to cognitive computing. It is almost like Le Châtelier's principle of dynamic equilibrium in the chemistry world, where when a chemical reaction is taking place, it goes both forward and backward once it reaches a point of homeostasis. This element would be huge in artificial intelligence and a key to random ideation.
The last key to random ideation, is built on biomimicry. We humans have 5 universal senses, or sensory apparatus, and they are always on (ears, nose, eyes, touch, & taste). These sensors generate an interrupt vector in my meditation to tell me that my nose is itchy, and I better quit this mindfulness and scratch it. If I disobey the sensor signal processor, it belligerently intensifies the itch until I no longer can ignore, and sits back with a smugness of a job well done in interrupting my ability to quiet the brain.
So, to this point in our virtual AI thought machine, we have the need for neural nets directly linked to non-volatile memory. Then we have a time domain controller linking contextually unrelated events to the time domain. That aids in the ability of abstraction and puts artificial consciousness into the real domain of the arrow of time which is the chief feature of the universe. Then we have the ability to go from abstraction to concrete and back again. Finally we have a core sensors that are always on to provide input to the neural network. This is how a cognitive machine will be built.
This sounds like a lot of effort and theory, but I hearken back to my electronic digital circuits days. You start with three or four boolean logic gates built out of transistors. Once you have the gates you start combining them, and you get a flip-flop, or a latch that can hold transient data. You have the beginnings of a compute machine. You gang them together. You are still using the same basic simple building blocks, but as you start to step and repeat and combine, and grow the transistors, you get incredible complex behavior that lets you go to the moon or visit Pluto with a binary machine.
This all exemplifies Shuster's Law where if you can think something, it will eventually become inventable -- without exception.
It is highly ironic that trying not to think, has taught me things about teaching machines to think.
I looked at my new follower on Twitter. The photo above shows a pretty, young woman in a very coy pose. The screen name is Monica Geller. The interesting banner photo on "her" profile was a representation of a network on the globe with luminescent node effulgence sprinkled over it. The discordant thing was the mismatch between the screen name and the user name. The user name in this case was not Monica Geller, but LilyJohns012. That is a warning bell.
I get a lot of followers that are bots, and one of the tip-offs is the mismatch between the screen name and the username. When a bot makes an account, the username is usually random letters and numbers like iurowjnx7. However some of the accounts that sell stuff have a mismatch between screen name and user name. This is a screen capture of the banner.
The real tip-off was the location - The People's Republic of China and "Monica's" website was china-cable-suppliers.com.
Monica's bio reads "I love travelling around the world. I like to make new friends. Welcome to my world. Now I'm working in Fiberstore."
What you don't see, is the next line saying: Born on February 05.
Interesting. What does this beautiful, Caucasian world traveler tweet about? Is it about making new friends or her exotic travel places or that she is a dual personality named Monica Geller and Lily Johns? Nope.
She tweets about splicing cable with this photo:
or how great looking that this aerial splice enclosure looks:
It's just amazing how every single tweet has a question about cable products or laudatory quotes about everything fiber, cable and connector. And not one of the Tweeters is from China where Monica/Lily hails from.
I guess that this sort of Potemkin Village on Twitter is how the Chinese think that social media marketing should happen.
This is the note that Apple is sending to its developers regarding the counterfeit, compromised XCode Software Development Kit
(A philosophy of action) provides a framework of values, ideas, and practices that nurture my ability to create a path in life, to define myself as a person, to act, to take risks, to image things differently, to make art. -Stephen Batchelor
Design is not a commodity. It is treated like one at virtually every single Fortune 500 corporation. Design is intellectual capital. Jean Mignot, a French architect, in the late 14th & early 15th Centuries coined the Latin phrase "Ars sine Scienta nihil est". It translates to "art without science is nothing". In medieval literature the Latin term "ars" (art) generally applied to things created and fashioned by humankind as distinguished from all else in nature. The Latin term "scientia" referred broadly to the accumulated knowledge and theory associated with a profession. This dictum came about when he was shown the plans for the Milan Cathedral. It was a beautiful, artistic design, but the plans didn't take into account the mechanical strains of the huge building. Mignot argued that the building would collapse if there was no rigorous mechanical engineering in the support structure. They listened to him, and the edifice still stands today, as does his saying.
The Design Wizard
Design is a mixture of inspiration, art, science, creativity, labor and reflection. As such, it should be created by a combination of work and fused with a process that others call magic. The great author, Arthur C. Clarke once said that "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic", and digital design should fall into that category. Once you start practicing the craft and creed of the dharmas or key concepts of design, and start turning out works of excellence, you will indeed become a practitioner of magic, albeit digital and creative magic. In Sanskrit, there is a word for such a person and it is dharmika, which in fact means wizard. Having that power is priceless. However, we must have a system of creating and measuring the magic, and benchmarks are the way that it is done.
Benchmarks on the Craftsman's Bench
Before one can become a craftsman, one must have a framework as a standard to judge work and progress by. The framework itself becomes the constitution of the persons practicing the craft. That entire concept of integrating a framework with a tutelage and the work, was formed throughout the history of man in specialized work. Young apprentices learned design and construction frameworks from their masters and honed their skills by measuring it against the framework. The underpinnings of what they did was codified, and spread through education and example. It is how secret societies based on technical knowledge arose.
The higher the level of skill, the more tightly grew the community practicing it. Guilds were form, and the craftsmen gathered in guildhalls. The technology of their skillset was a trade secret, and consequently secret societies were formed to protect that valuable knowledge. That is how we got the Masonry guild and Freemasons, among others groups as well.
The ultimate priority of these guilds and craftsmen, was to protect the public face of their work and of their skills. It was a testament to the dedication of their vocation and a pride in their work. For example, a stone mason would hone his skills and abilities creating work such that a piece of paper could not be inserted between two stones that he laid. A stone carver could make a stone cherubim that looked life-like enough to fly away. These craftsmen put their character into their work, and let their work speak for itself, and as a result their work has endured through the ages. These craftsmen even took the names of their professions as a mark of pride. That is why we have surname s like Mason (stone worker), Fletcher (arrow maker), Cooper (barrel maker), Baker, Carpenter, Barber, Bowman etc. It was a calling, a community and source of identification.
That sort of dedication to craftsmanship is lacking among digital designers, programmers and web developers. We have fallen into the trap and started believing what money-pinching managers believe, that the work we do, is a commodity. We need to be respected specialists and not journeymen. We need our own guild -- even if it a virtual one.
Excerpt from "The Ten Living Principles - The Craft And Creed of Transformative Digital Design"
Uber did it. They tried to kill conventional taxis. Airbnb did it. They tried to kill Expedia, travel sites and conventional bricks and mortar hotels. Expedia, in turn, tried to kill conventional travel agents. Dating sites did it by killing personal ads in print media. Photo sharing apps destroyed the need for carrying pictures of your kids in wallets built with special snapshot compartments. Everybody is doing it. The next big idea is to destroy, upset and disrupt bricks and mortar business.
BUT .......................... what if it doesn't make sense to disrupt and kill the bricks and mortar business, but rather empower them with new technologies? That is our story at Selectbidder.com
We knew that the social side of business was important. Car dealers, and indeed any business people want to do business with people they know and trust. That's why we invented the Exclusive Zone and the Trusted Buyers Network. We put the social media side to automobile remarketing. And we put in some real nifty tech so that new and used car dealers could run their own auctions with their own networks and cut out the bricks and mortar auction. It was received with a subdued acknowledgement. There was something that we were missing.
The "something" was both a technology problem and a more intrinsic human problem. At the heart of our value proposition, we want to move trade-in vehicles quickly. When you take your wheels to a new car dealer, he has to take your trade-in so that you can buy a new vehicle. He really doesn't want your car. Over 90% of trade-in vehicles do not end up on the dealers lot. They are either too old, the wrong condition, non-sellers, or not of kind vehicle that his clientele buys.
To ameliorate this, the new car dealer has developed several strategies. It is assumed in the industry that unwanted trade-ins end up at the auto auctions. Our research showed that this was not true. Only 20% or so, of trade-ins ended up there. The rest of the cars were disposed of through private networks. The dealer always has a bunch of go-to guys who are wholesalers, used car dealers or other dealers. The used car manager goes through the Rolodex, and using the phone, disposes of the unwanted iron on his lot. What he doesn't get rid of, goes to auto auctions. This was a staggering piece of information for us, and it should be for the industry, because almost all of the used car valuators (Black Book, Blue Book, etc etc) use auction prices as the basis of their valuations.
The second problem with private networks, is that the networks are small, and the range of traded-in autos is very large. Thus the small network doesn't have the will or the ability to absorb all trade-ins. Technology had one of the answers. At Selectbidder.com we have foundation patent-pending in computer escalation of various buying groups until the car is sold. Our technology is unique.
The way that it works, is that if the private network doesn't buy the car (using instantaneous mobile technology -- smartphones and tablets as well as computer) after a certain period of time, then the platform does some data mining and machine learning to offer to a group of dealers created on the fly who are known to buy these kinds of cars. If that didn't work after a period of time, the platform moves the autos to a classified type of listing or consigns them to a bricks and mortar auction. This technology is fabulous, but it didn't solve two problems.
The first unsolved problem was that the private networks were too small to adequately absorb the wide variety of trade-ins. The second unsolved problem was a more generic one for the new car dealer. If the dealer put too much into the trade-in, and then the trade-in didn't sell for what he thought it was worth, he lost money on both the trade-in and on the new car sale. Cars rarely bring in what the published prices show in the various valuation providers.
The solution to both of those problems lay in leveraging the existing auto auctions. They have almost the entire local network of dealers so that the buying network is large. And those dealers in the auctions network have intense local knowledge of what a vehicle is worth. For example, in rural areas, a king cab pickup truck may bring in a higher price than it would fetch in a gentrified urban setting. A rural dealer could get more money for it. That is just one example.
So we had to get this intense localized knowledge to the new car dealer, right when he was making the deal with the customer. The only way to do this, was to involve the bricks and mortar auction.
This involved mobile technology of scanning the VIN number, taking a few pics with a smartphone, filling in a condition report and getting real time appraisals while the customer was looking over the new car.
The auction also has intense market knowledge of who buys whatever is offered. They flip the car to a group of buyers for real time appraisal. The best part of this, was that the appraisals could be accompanied by an offer to buy at the appraisal price. If there were no offers to buy, the dealer has a customer facing screen on our platform, showing the customer what his trade-in is really worth. The dealer is no longer the bad guy when an appraisal is on the low side. It is the marketplace that doesn't value the customer's car, and it absolves the dealer of trying to low-ball the trade-in. Most all customers have an inflated idea of what their car is worth, and the Selectbidder platform takes the dealer's "bad" intentions out of play.
So, once we implemented this paradigm, the interest in our platform skyrocketed, as did the customer engagement and sign-ups. Everyone makes money on this deal. The auction get a cut for flipping the cars, the dealer is happy because the trade-in is disposed of instantly and he can make a profitable deal for himself without waiting for the trade-in to sell.
Sometimes it really pays to be contrarian and leverage the bricks-and-mortar business, instead of trying to kill it with technology.
You can read about Selectbidder.com here:
I was genuinely perplexed. The world is a vastly different place than I envisioned it as a teenager. It seems that the continued enlightenment and scientific advancement in the years from post World War II to the turn of the millennium would bring the world into a less chaotic global village with a greater degree of peace, stability and economic well-being for man. In many respects, the world has regressed.
Purely for my own understanding, I decided to try and figure out some reasons for the current problems of the world, using my skills in data mining. I took twenty top international news sites, and by scraping their content with open source tools, I had a collection, a snapshot of the microcosm of the world today. Encapsulated in that collection, would be a good starting point as a list of the major problems of the world.
To do some preliminary research into the world's problems, I decided to see what research was out there in the public domain. Eurobarometer had actually conducted a poll across the length and breadth of Europe, and came up with the following list of the top ten major world problems:
- #10 Don't Know
- #9 Proliferation Of Nuclear Weapons
- Tied #7 Armed Conflict
- Tied #7 Spread Of Infectious Disease
- #6 The Increasing Global Population
- #5 Availability Of Energy
- #4 International Terrorism
- #3 The Economic Situation
- #2 Climate Change
- #1 Poverty, Hunger And Lack Of Drinking Water
It is interesting that two percent of the people in Europe answered with "Don't Know". This was the reason that I conducted this exercise in the first place.
After I had my collection of data from the news sources, I decided to do a bottom-up analysis of the news. I tagged each story with a tag that generally summarized the theme of the story. I had a lot of tags, and at that point, I needed to do some feature engineering by adding a layer of abstraction to the tags, so that the stories could be grouped for sameness. I kept adding layers of abstraction until I got a manageable number of tags, and then did a bottom-up Naive Bayes classification of the tags. The classifiers neatly categorized the stories.
I didn't just want a grocery list of the problems. I was looking for something deeper. I was looking for answers related to the human condition, and how we, as a varied group of humans who inhabit this earth feel, react, create and possibly solve these problems. So consequently, I created another layer of abstraction for a broad brush category of problems that condensed the list into a smaller but cogent set that related directly to the human condition. Once I had the bottom up tag analysis done, I decided to do a top down, sentiment analysis of my problem tags. It would be interesting to see how my analysis would fare with the Eurobarometer analysis.
Don't forget, my list came from the news sites, so it represents a snapshot of what was in the forefront on this particular current time period. Here is my list of twelve issues:
- Africa Issues
- Alienation/Marginalization of peoples/societies/groups
- Business Sector Wars/Competition
- Economical Structural Change
- Mass Media/Censorship/Subjectivity
- Migrant Problems
- Religious Fundamentalism/Jihadism/Religious Wars
- Technology Frontiers/Problems
The differences between my list and the Eurobarometer list was apparent. Africa was not on the list whereas it was represented as its own category in the news of late, and indirectly in the Migrant issues (although the migrant issues were a global phenomenon including the Caribbean where Haitians are fleeing their homeland causing problems in the neighboring countries).
In trying to understand the root cause, one of the surprising inclusions on my list, was Alienation/Marginalization of peoples/societies/groups. This included stories about gay rights, Kurdish struggles in other countries, Sunni versus Shia, Basques versus Spaniards etc.
So how did my sentiment analysis turn out? As it turns out, for my limited study, the environment is the number one issue in terms of global problems. Here is the list and the percentage of stories connected to the issues.
- Environment -54.21%
- Alienation/Marginalization of peoples/societies/groups -23.29%
- Mass Media/Censorship/Subjectivity -8.48%
- Migrant Problems -3.92%
- Globalization -1.75%
- Business Sector Wars -1.71%
- Technology Frontiers -1.67%
- Partisanship -1.35%
- Nationalism -1.26%
- Religious Fundamentalism -1.03%
- Africa Issues -0.95%
- Economical Structural Change -0.36%
It seems that most conflicts in the world arise from the number two problem - Alienation /Marginalization of peoples/ societies/ groups. This is probably the root cause of most social problems facing any area of the globe today. Everyone wants and needs their own place in the sun, and others are trying to prevent them from having it, for a whole range of reasons.
People also seem to be concerned about their sources of information. Right wing groups accuse the mainstream media of liberal bias. Conservative news sites are mocked as Faux News. It seems that in the plethora of information sources, everyone has a hidden agenda, and folks are concerned about it. Objective information is very hard to find, with the democratization of information dissemination on the internet.
There is no need to further expound on migrant problems, which came in at number 4 on my list. It is hugely topical.
There are still worries about globalization, but it doesn't have the same impact as the people or environment related stories.
It is interesting that business and technology appear on the list of problems. Business has the general sentiment of being anti-humanistic and profit for profit's sake at the expense of the human condition. Technology is seen as a threat with artificial intelligence, killer robots and job destroyers.
The next two categories can be somewhat related - partisanship and nationalism. They are both 'people-interacting in their countries' stories. Partisanship is now rampant with gridlocked Congress versus the president, the Confederate flag issue and nationalism is seen in various venues around the globe where Scotland wants to exit the United Kingdom, Great Britain wants to exit the European Union, Basque and Catalonia want to exit from Spain, Quebec wanted to separate from Canada, ad infinitum.
Religious fundamentalism is inexplicably rising. There seems to be a growing intolerance between mainstream and fundamentalism. This is not only seen in the Muslim world, but also in the US where a city clerk refused to issue marriage licence to gays because of fundamentalism religious beliefs. We have seen Baptists churches picketing the funerals of slain American soldiers from overseas, on religious grounds. Who would have predicted this shift 30 years ago? I would be interested in knowing why there is a swing to fundamentalism in the modern world. In broad brush strokes, this seems to be a struggle with progression versus regression and it is inexplicable to rational thought.
Africa is low on the list, but concerning. Africa was the site of proxy wars between the superpowers in the last 60 years or more, and now there is currency collapse, armed conflict, epidemics, partisan in-fighting, loss of democracy and pretty much any social, economic or environmental ill that anyone can name. Africa creates instability in the global village.
And bringing up the bottom of the list, is fundamental economic change. Long term jobs are being replaced by the gig economy. Manufacturing is undergoing fundamental changes. The biggest profits are now from virtual paper transactions on Wall Street with the one-percenters who jerk the economy around with their financial derivatives and dark markets.
Certainly this exercise has opened the window and shed some light for me, but as usual, answers to these issues are elusive, complex and in many cases there are no apparent ones. Life does seem to go on.
This is an excerpt from the book "The Ten Living Principles - The Craft & Creed of Transformative Digital Design"
Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep. -Scott Adams
The art of art, the glory of expression and the sunshine of the light of letters, is simplicity. -Walt Whitman
User. It sounds bad. It has negative connotations. Before the age of the computer, it had a pejorative meaning. Some users are users, in the context of using someone for their own gain. However , in computerese, the user is the consumer of your work. Recognizing and respecting users as people, I will try not loosely use the term "user" again to refer to design consumers in this book, unless absolutely necessary.
The Underpinnings of a Digital Design Consumer
These people who use our designs, possess and exhibit the five aggregates, or skandhas (aspects) of sentient beings when consuming our designs: matter, sensation, perception, mental formations and consciousness, according to Yogic philosophy. This ancient Yogic delineation of a sentient person, also describes perfectly, a modern digital, human experience, either with a device, in a web page or using an app or computer program.
The matter is the content or the physical incarnation. The sensation is how the person experiences it. The perception is how and what the person sees through the lens and filter of his or her own experience. Are they turned off by it? Are they intrigued by it? The mental formations are what they think of it. Remember the term thin-slicing from a previous chapter? Users rarely change their minds after they have made a snap decision as to whether to like it or not.
And finally we come to consciousness in the context of the state of awareness, subjectivity or sentience. Consciousness encompasses awareness and feeling. You want to tap to that to make your designs resonate with the largest amount of people who consume your designs. As a matter of fact, you want your designs to attract viewership, AND have them feel good about it.
Taking the lead from Mignot's saying of "Art without Science is nothing", the personal experience of design is broken into three sub-domains of interest when it comes to studying the ergonomics of design and how it affects the personal experience. They are the physical, cognitive and organizational human factors.
Physical Aspects ~ Fitting in the Humans
The physical sub-domain deals with anthropometric, physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to human action. In the real world, I saw a very good example of this. I was shown the inside of the very famous M1A1 American battle tank. It was and is a formidable weapon. It's designers assumed that the tank driver is a scared 20-year old reservist from an urban center, thrust into the heat of battle. The human factor ergonomics incorporating this precept, were amazing. To move the tank forward, you pushed a joystick forward. The turret rotated by whatever way the joystick was pushed as well. You didn't have to think to drive it or fight it. In contrast, I saw a British tank where you cranked a wheel near your knee to turn the turret one way, and reached over your shoulder and turned a knurled knob to reverse direction. It would not rate high in usability experience, and illustrates perfectly, the necessity of taking into account, the art and science of physical ergonomics.
First You Must Get The Manual Out Of The Garbage
In device design, it means that you must be able to figure out how to use it without instruction and a manual. In web design, a good physical design means that to do an action, you do not need to scroll across the screen with your cursor twice to reach menu items, and you don't have to scroll down to read the entire value proposition of the message that you are trying to convey. Everything that is needed is close together, and placed intuitively where one would subconsciously expect it.
If you are a font designer, the physical component means that the font can be read from up close or afar. When it is shrunken, the words do not all blend together or create something that confuses the eye. In graphic design, the design elements should draw the eyes into the value proposition, rather than distracting the view to all over the page or screen. A person shouldn't have to work hard when absorbing the features of any design.
Mental And Cognitive Aspects
The cognitive sub-domain is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect humans in the elements of a design. This means that the design should induce positive feelings. It should not contain discordant things that cause mental dissonance or cognitive dissonance. It should engender engagement. It shouldn't be work. If there are words, they should be attention-grabbing. The design should mentally motivate people to accept its message or value proposition. It must fit into the organizational domain that it was made for.
Cogs And Gears In Their Places
The organizational sub-domain deals with many factors of physical and virtual environment. In what organizational context will the design be used? Who will participate in using the design together? Is this a participatory design? Is this a social design experience, or a solitary one? Was it meant for work groups, or family groups? This is the chief design criteria and consideration for social networks like Facebook or Twitter.
Don't forget that design not only involves the visual element, but the gears and wheels or the code behind it to make it work, as well as the structure required behind it to support it. The structure includes both the operational structure and the audience structure. The two go hand in hand.Those three elements of design (physical, cognitive, organizational) all have to be taken into account when producing a digital design of worth.
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